Commonly used locksmith tools of the trade

Every professional has its own set of tools. On the same parlance, a locksmith also has certain tools in his toolbox. These tools are specific and concrete in nature. If a person wants to make a career in providing locksmith services, then he needs to be proficient in the applications of these tools.

Let us understand some of the commonly used locksmith tools of the trade.

Key blanks:

Key blanks are used for different types of locks such as residential locks, commercial locks, etc. Similarly, automobile locks also have specific type of key blanks.

Key maker machine:

As the name implies, this machine is used for making keys. A good locksmith can make use of this machine in an effective manner for creating original as well as replacement keys. The different types of keys such as cabinet keys can be cut using this machine. Key machines also play an important role in duplicating keys or creating replicas of the original key for the owner. The different types of key maker machines are as follows:

  • Manual
  • Automatic
  • Semi-automatic

Lock picks:

Locksmiths require lock pics for varied types of locks. For example, a locksmith may need lock picks for government locks, hospital locks, locks for biometric fingerprint machines, etc. A lock pick kit is comprised of various components such as following:

  • Pinning equipment
  • Pins
  • Tension wrenches

Transponder keys:

These keys have been specifically designed by the key industry experts for automobiles. As automobiles possess special needs, the transponder keys suit the purpose. Transponder keys are supposed to be coded and hence, a coding machine is essential.

Power Drill:

It is a portable as well as crucial locksmith tools of the trade. Availability of power drills in the market is in different volumes, weights, companies and materials. The main purpose of a power drill is for drilling holes so that the locks can be fixed into it. This machine is required to drill holes in the doors as well as in the walls.

Pick Guns:

Pick gun is one of the commonly used and useful tool in the locksmith’s toolkit. This tool is mainly used for opening different kinds of locks. The two types of pick guns are as follows:

  • Manual
  • Electric

The functioning of pick gun is similar to that of a key turner. The pick gun moves in the upward direction causing the pins to jump outwards. As a result, the lock gets opened.

It is important to note that pick guns are used by locksmiths on a wide scale. However, even burglars use this tool for opening locks in an illegal and unauthorized way.

Other kinds of locksmith tools of the trade are opening cards, key rings, tags, etc. Thus, a good locksmith will have all the above essential tools in his toolkit. Moreover, he may also have additional tools in case of emergencies. A highly skilled locksmith will know when to make use of these tools. He knows the exact technique of using these tools and machines to resolve locking concerns of his customers.

Tips To Control Humidity

Controlling indoor humidity levels is important for health related and financial reasons. High indoor humidity levels  can cause mold, mildew and fungi to grow in your house. Your house structure can be damaged from too much household humidity. This article gives 13 simple ways to have healthy and comfortable humidity humidity levels in your home..

We humans spend most of our time inside which is why indoor humidity levels can harm our health. This is  especially true for children and elderly people. Keeping indoor humidity levels at the recommended levels will benefit health and avoid structural damage to your house. A comfortable humidity range is between 25% – 60% relative humidity. Relative indoor humidity levels are lower in cold weather because there is less moisture in cold air.

Low Indoor Humidity Levels

When humidity levels are too low the air holds less moisture and become dry. This dry air can cause us to experience nosebleeds, dryness in mucous membranes and skin irritation.  Too Low relative humidity can cause wooden floors and furniture damage. Static electricity can develop which can interfere with the operation of computers and related products.

Keeping a comfortable humidity level during winter months can be difficult in cold climates. Using a humidifier in cold months maybe helpful if care is taken to monitor indoor humidity levels so that humidity does not rise too high. When indoor humidity levels are too high serious problems can develop.

High Indoor Humidity Levels and Health

High indoor humidity levels can exist in any climate but tend to be higher in summer months. Warm  air contains more moisture  which creates more humidity in the home. The negative health effects of too much indoor humidity can be serious. High indoor humidity levels can be the cause of mold in your house. That is where some of top rated dehumidifiers come to the rescue.

We humans experience physical discomfort when humidity levels are too high. The human body cools as perspiration on our bodies evaporates. Evaporating perspiration from skin is the main way that humans manage body temperature. The evaporation of perspiration is slower when we are in high humidity situations and we tend to experience more discomfort. Moreover high humidity can damage your best home safes by rusting.

It is not uncommon to have difficulty breathing in high indoor humidity levels. Ailments such as asthma can be aggravated under this circumstance.

Dehumidifiers and air conditioning is often effective in creating a comfortable humidity level in home during summer. In winter relative humidity comfort can be achieved when indoor humidity levels stay within normal indoor humidity levels. Relative humidity levels below 25% can cause nosebleeds,dry itchy skin, dry mucous membranes and other discomfort.

Types Of Residential Door Locks

Security is of utmost importance to families these days due to increasing crimes in cities. There are various ways to curb them. One of them is to install a good residential door lock. It provides the required security to you and your family.

There are various kinds of residential door locks available in the market. One has the option to choose from the wide range as per their preference and budget. Some of them are as mentioned below :

  1. Padlocks –

They are the most common type of door locks available. They can be used on the door once and the same can be used on the cupboard the next time. So these padlocks are not attached to anything permanently. In modern days, padlocks are available with a combination of a number dial. The lock would only open on entering the correct number. Also, certain padlocks are key – retaining. The key cannot be removed from the lock when the lock is open.

  1. Knob locks –

They are usually used for primary security. They have an additional lock to make the locks in the home safe. They should generally be avoided on the on external doors. These knob doors are very easy to open. They can be broken with ease and also bypassed very smoothly. It is recommended that you should use another lock with a knob door lock for better security.

  1. Deadbolts –

They are usually placed on the exterior doors and are more secure than padlocks and knob locks. They are available in different types : single and double door locks.

The single cylinder deadbolt lock has a simple yet sturdy mechanism. The interior can be thumb locked. While, the exterior can only be opened with a key. It is suitable for installation in many homes in safe areas. If one tries to breakthrough this lock it is difficult as he would have to destroy both the door frame and the door as well.

A double cylinder door lock are much more strong and safe. It is known to be a theft deterrent. This lock requires keys to open the interior as well as the exterior. Also, a separate turning lock can be used in the interior to ensure that keys are not required to open from the interior.

In case of emergency situations when the door gets locked from inside it is difficult to unlock it. This type of deadbolt provides more flexibility and security. Usually most deadbolt locks are rekeyable, but some are easy to rekey than others.

  1. Sliding locks –

It is used for the interior of the house. Mostly sliding locks are used in addition to deadbolt locks for extra security by households. This lock has an easy mechanism for children to learn to operate. Thus, it should be placed high enough so that it is not reachable by the kids.

  1. Privacy locks –

This is another lock which is preferable to be installed on the interior. It is an ideal option for bedrooms and bathrooms. The interior has a button to be pressed to lock it. These are easy for elders to use at home. Some of these locks are also added with a pin hold in case if an emergency situation.

  1. Handle locks –

Many house owners prefer to use the handle or lever type of locks over traditional padlocks. There are some of them which have a keyhole on one side and a button on the interior. The handles need to be affixed firmly to enable them to move properly.

  1. Passage door knobs –

This door knob does not have a locking system. It is usually chosen for the pantries and closets at home. Some parents also choose this door lock for the bedrooms of their young children. It becomes very scary for a child to get trapped alone in a room. In such a situation, these door locks become a good option.

  1. Passage lock set –

This type of a door lock has two knobs. One side of the lock has a keyhole and the other side has turning lever mechanism. It is a great way to protect your household in case of unsafe surroundings. Precision is required to install this type of lock to ensure that the lock mechanism functions effectively.

  1. Mortise door lock –

It is a sort of high – tech type of residential lock. There is a faceplate installed in a rectangular box over it. The keyholes and knobs fit right onto the faceplate. They are held by a set screw in place. They are also available in different lengths to suit different requirements. The lock uses the features of both the latchbolt and deadlock. It is usually opened with a key from the exterior.

  1. Furniture locks –

It includes the desk, cabinet and sliding door locks. They use a bolt style lock or a push button style lock. The bolt style lock has piece of flat metal that helps to secure the device. While the push button style lock have a rod that is placed on the back of the lock to secure the things in it. Such furniture locks can be installed on hardware to safeguard them too.

  1. Cam locks –

They are used to secure mailboxes or filing cabinets, etc. They are available in a variety of lengths. They can rotate almost from 90 to 180 degrees. Their rotation can be clockwise or anticlockwise.

  1. Keyless locking system –

It is usually seen in high – end homes. It uses a keypad of thumb recognition mechanism to unlock the door. Each family member can have their code. In addition to this a common code is allocated for the whole family as a default code. It is a sheer theft deterrent by all means. Many house owners also add a deadbolt for extra precaution.

Where one is in search of a suitable door lock for their home, they should consider all the above types and keep in mind their requirements and choose a door lock for them. It is essential that the chosen door lock gives maximum security to you and your family.

More importantly, you need to hire a professional residential locksmith in order to insure that your property is fully secured. They will have the know how, toolset and locks on hand to assist you best.

How to move a fish tank

If you own a fish tank, you will agree that it can be challenging to move it from one place to the other. This is because of the process involved, and the fragile nature of the tank. One thing that you have to note is that travel is a very difficult process for the fish. Mainly because they don’t like change especially in relation to their environment. That is the reason why you need to ensure that you exercise caution when you are moving the aquarium.

Before moving

Before you can begin the process of moving the aquarium, there are things that you need to know;

  • If you are moving to a new house, the aquarium should be the last thing that you move. It is important for you to ensure that you minimize the time that the fish will spend outside the environment
  • Fresh water fish are very sensitive to the changes in environment. You therefore need to ensure that you try to maintain the normal environment that they are used to, including water tempurature.

How to move the aquarium

One of the greatest challenges that you will face when you are trying to move the fish tank is the filtration system. You know, without enough supply of oxygen, the aerobic bacteria will be affected and possibly die. That is why you are advised to move the tank in the shortest time possible. You can follow this procedure;

Have the necessary tools

You will need to have buckets that you are going to use to transfer the fish. So, using a siphon hose you need to drain all the water from the fish tanks.

You will need to have a net that you will use to catch and remove the fish from the tank. Ensure that you have counted the fish to know if they are all alive.

It is important for you to ensure that you close all the buckets so that the fish can survive.

Remove all the decorations

If there is anything in the tank, you need to remove it so that the tank can be easy to move from one place to the next.

Cover the tank

Once all the decorations and gravel have been removed, you need to wrap the tank with bubble warp to secure it. Ensure that the tank is flat when you are moving it.

Return the fish

Once you arrive to your new place, you need to put the fish back in the tank. You need to do it systematically. Ensure that you replace all the decorations to the tank.

You probably spent a lot of money on your fish tank, and a lot of money on your fish. It is worth taking a little extra time to prepare properly to move your fish tank. Write out a plan on paper. Check, and double check everything. Get the job done in the quickest amount of time possible to increase the chances of having a casualty free fish move.

Need to move? Contact Movers Lexington KY for a free estimate today!

Give your baby cute hairstyle and play with their appearance

 

Playing with the hairstyle of a person is just like playing with how the person looks in the crowd. Most of the people are defined by the help of their haircuts. Whether you talk about adults or babies, the hairstyles play critical role in telling people how a person look. Altering it means that you are altering the outlook of a person. So, with all this significance associated with hairstyle, when the matter of baby haircut arises, you will not look to commit any mistake. So, here we are with some great and perfect haircuts for baby.

Medium Length Cut

The medium length cut is something comfortable for your toddler. The hair are parted along with the short line which is mostly given on the left side. Therefore, the bigger and longer hair goes to the right where you can sweep it to the side or run it down. However, a slight trim is required to make it go with the rest of the style.

The Pull Up

The Pull Up can also be referred to as the afro of kids. However, as compared to the regular afro, this is something that goes exactly with your lad. The hair are given time to grow upwards and sideways. Length is kept equal in length at all sides and people may opt to trim it to a good length overall. The trim is done in concern with the requirement. Some parents like medium length while others may wish to go for long hair. Something uncommon but surely worth a try.

Long and Shaggy

Want to give your kid a star’s look? Try this style. Let the hair grow freely to a good length. When you grow hair to a good length, it is often seen that they form natural curls. So, let them grow to a length where they are forming the curls. Do not trim them to edges neither from the sides nor from the back. Once you have them to that length, you will see that your child gets a bold look from the hairstyle. Add confidence to your kid by giving him this haircut.

So, these are some ideas for perfect baby boy haircuts. Not only these but there are many more for you to try out. Most of the hairstyle look appropriate on the kids. It is just about how you want your kid to appear.

 

Song Quiz Guess Radio Music

Why Song Quiz Guess Radio Music can help you become the distinctly more quick witted

The Android recreations have never been such an enormous amount of amusing to play because as the present day world turns out to be more advanced the decisions are getting to be distinctly open and the ideal case of it none other than Song Quiz Guess Radio Music is an amusement that has a bounty to offer. You may have played such a significant number of recreations with alternate points of view, yet this one is unique since you get the opportunity to see there is cake, music is playing, and you gain o power a strange looking individual when its inclination changes and you need to go to numerous visitors touching base at the gathering. It set in an only one room which makes it such a great amount of enjoyable to play.

There are such a large number of different sorts of gear that you can touch, and unquestionably you need to pass up traveling between various parts it is the one of a kind looking amusement that you never need to miss for sure including the word cookies answers. So whatever you are playing stop in that spot and concentrate on this one that can educate to maybe a couple of things about existence.

Song Quiz Guess Radio Music

All things considered underneath we have recorded a portion of the genuine actualities about how playing Song Quiz Guess Radio Music can help you get to be distinctly more intelligent to make you see what number of levels this one offers, what are the standard procedures to play this one, who has built up this new trivia application, on which stages it is accessible for download, are utilizing cheats important to pass every level, and why you ought to consider this in any case.

  • What number of levels this one offers?

The diversion has no levels yet split into part it has three sections, and more are coming soon. Everyone is a cerebrum secret who said that get to be distinctly more astute was n simple employment.

  • What are the standard procedures to play this one?

The principles of playing this one are quite straightforward you should just to tap on the bolts so you can explore small 3D shapes and you will discover a few protests in ”Song Quiz Guess Radio Music all levels on answerskey.com to cooperate with them and found things for your stock.

  • Who has built up this new trivia application?

The designer of this trivia application is the well-known silver cone Valley who is known for making testing diversions in light of solid shape confusing.

  • On which devices it is accessible to download?

Playing on both IOS and Android gadgets for nothing is accessible. You can attempt on your PC too.

  • Are utilizing cheats necessary to pass every level?

The amusement loaded with riddles, and you can without much of a stretch get yourself or trap on few levels so you can utilize ”Song Quiz Guess Radio Music cheats” to pass every level quickly.

  • Why would it be a good idea for you to consider this in any case?

Song Quiz Guess Radio Music is more similar to a small scale story diversion that is determined to the centers to tell a story of a man which you attempt in any case.

How Much Does a Rekeying Service Cost in Austin?

Should you rekey your locks or have them replaced when moving to a new home? This is a decision that’s left entirely to you.

Rekeying involves changing the wafer configuration or tumbler of the lock so that the new key can function and the old one cannot. It is done without having to replace the entire lock.

Rekeying your locks is a good option as it costs much less than having the entire lock system replaced. Rekeying enhances your security, is cost effective and saves a lot of your time.

The question is how much does a rekeying service cost in Austin? How much a locksmith would charge you for rekeying your locks depends on many factors such as the type of the lock, your location and how quickly you want the job to be done.

Normally, a locksmith in Austin would charge you between $35 and $150 to get you out of a lockout scenario. What they charge you for the rekeying service would depend on the work that needs to be done.

So, if a lot of work is needed to drill the lock out of its base, then you will probably be charged more for the service. Also, if you’re living in a remote area, the locksmith might charge you more.

The cost of the rekeying depends on the lock type. The locksmith doesn’t charge much for rekeying a simple, standard key. They would probably charge more for specialized keys.

While rekeying a standard lock shouldn’t cost more than $10, depending on the nature and sophistication of the key, the rekeying costs can go up to $30.  Rekeying an electronic lock would cost $50 to $150.  Electronic locks are based on a keyless entry system or transponder keys (in case of cars).

Rekeying door locks costs would cost more as door locks come with cylinders. The locksmith would charge separately to have the cylinder replaced, in addition to the rekeying.  Rekeying a door lock would cost you between $40 and $100.

The final cost of the rekeying would depend on the number of locks that are rekeyed at a time. Most homeowners would rather get all of their locks rekeyed at once. This can cost you more. The labor charges for rekeying all locks would be in addition to the standard rekeying rates, and it is usually between $20 and $30.

What is Dashboard app?

Consider Dashboard a working hub that let you guide with the help of your detail throughout the day. A variety of apps has been created throughout years. These apps prioritize the information it controls. Such information is not private but plays an important role in daily life routine of the user. Mostly dashboard apps are similar they contain simple and straight forward information display. This information may be simple reminders or task that has to be performed within the work. There are few people around the world that use dashboard app at its full potential.

They would only use the dashboard app and buy cheap twitter followers as the reminder of the different task with a ringtone set to it. This ringtone helps to remind the user about the task he has to perform. While Dashboard app real potential is using the information in real time. Different cars also have dashboard inside a car but that dashboard is used to keep the necessary stuff. A Dashboard app is more interactive with a regular user than a user who occasionally uses the dashboard. Different companies are finding new techniques for developing different dashboards.

Which Kind People use Dashboard App?

Different kind of business oriented or people who need to process a lot of information.  The businessman is processing thousands of categories of data. This data is not yet filtered when arrived. A businessman needs a solution where he can filter the information but should in front of his eyes. Data needs to be presented so useful information can be extracted easily. A Dashboard helps the businessman to set up the information with a date when that information can be processed easily. Different styles of dashboard provide the interactive interface so that educated businessman can use the app to their proper extent. Interface easy acceptance is the main query asked by dashboard app users around the globe.

A difficult interface only makes the case worse. Developers around the world make sure the interface of the app is easy to understand. There shouldn’t be too many colors used in the app. Colors make hard to understand information for many people. They also reduce information reading efficiency. People who are inside a data processing jobs require data dashboard apps to be dull in color. They are processing a lot of different information. A dull app only helps them read the information with proper care. The simple interface of the app can be motivating for the dashboard users.

Why is Twitter shutting down Dashboard App?

Twitter is a social media where people follow each other tweet about mainstream or personal oriented things. Like every other social media Twitter also induced the platform with a dashboard app. The need of dashboard was there to provide the regular users with proper information process. The Twitter Dashboard was introduced in last summer.

This dashboard was very different from other information process and arranging dashboards. It was all about Twitter. This dashboard keeps the count of some tweets. How many tweets were posted? Dashboard would allow the user to schedule his or her tweet. The schedule was a great break through.

Twitter users bombarded the dashboard request with schedule tweet interface. The user could also monitor the trending posts on the Twitter. Many though Twitter dashboard was an unnecessary feature on the board. According to the Twitter hierarchy, the dashboard will cease to exist on February third, 2017. They are totally shutting down the information processing source available for the business base ids on the Twitter. They are designing something new that is much more advanced and equally capable to the dashboard. As dashboard shuts the down, transition plan would initiate that would replace the dashboard. One of the main reasons to shut down dashboard app that users didn’t recognize it’s potential.

Total downloads of the Twitter were almost forty thousand. It doesn’t mean that app was flawed. From millions of business apps, the available Twitter dashboard was ranked on four hundred and thirty-two numbers. But the problem continues when the user declined to almost three thousand users in a month.

What will be the impact of cheap twitter followers and shutting down the Dashboard App?

Shutting down the dashboard app will have a low impact on the users around the world. The app had little to less following. Shutting down the dashboard is a proper step so the new interface can be placed that has more features. App stores are real-time competitions between different apps. If one app fails to perform, that app would be regarded as the useless app. Users will hesitate to buy that app. With the new transition plan, twitter might bring something new to the plate that might help users.

How to Earn the IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2

Gaining an IT certification is considered as one of the best means for a certain professional to make it big in the competitive IT world. As you know, it is not easy to stand out in today’s competitive IT world, having the right certification can be used as your great tool for you to stand out.IBM certification is known as your best tips to stand out in the industry.
IBM certification is considered as an essential credential that is in demand in today’s competitive world. IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2 is a top-notch certification.

ibm-emptoris-telecom-expense

Description of IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2
IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2 certification is an ideal certification designed for IT professional who wants to prove skills in IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management.

This cerification can cover the technical knowledge that is required for managing, identifying and closing sales opportunities. The test is designed for the sales representatives who discover the technical knowledge and sales for the sales professional who could deliver a comprehensive business solutions business solutions.

Details of IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2 Exam
IBM P2050-059 exam has 35 multiple choice questions. The allowed time to complete the exam is only 75 minutes. The required passing score for the exam is only 71% and the exam is available in English language only.

Topics for IBM Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2
• Section 1 IBM TEM Overview 9%
• Section 2 Service Order Manager 17%
• Section 3 Inventory Engine 17%
• Section 4 Contract Management 11%
• Section 5 Finance Management 17%
• Section 6 Clarity Reporting 11%
• Section 7 IBM Telecom Portal 17%

Ways to Pass the P2050-059 Exam
In order to gain the certification, it would be great if you can prepare well for it, You have to make sure that all the materials you have on hand is offered by the best provider. Keep in mind that there are several exam materials and you have to select the one that can truly provide what you needed.

There are several materials that you can use when preparing for Emptoris Telecom Expense Management Technical Mastery Test v2 certification. Keep in mind that in any IT certification there’s a designated material that you can use. It is a must if you can collect the best exam materials for the credential. These are practice test, brain dumps, pdf and ebooks by Certschief Once you gain the credential, it can be used as your main ticket to guarantee that you can stand out in the competitive world of information technology You can use this as you main tool to show everyone your worth.

Most Beautiful good night quotes for friends

good night quotesDream of the top, climb from step to step.
Wake up and ask yourself: what steps will go up today?
Lie back and ask yourself: what steps I climbed today?
Success is a result of our daily actions.

Today not despise me … Do not let me dream a dream
that is not your own!

Dream big, dream very high, high enough that your dream is so high as to drive you out of the ground and go to fight.

If it is to dream, dream of the impossible and see it all turn into reality right in front of your eyes.

Think, dream, act like you want.

What weight has dream? If you have no weight, dream big. It gives the same job!

Dream, has wonderful dreams and make possible.

AME with all his strength, LUTE by a dream, DREAM! SING! DANCE! hold someone with your soul, KISS! Tell people how they are important to you, DO NOT BE AFRAID to say “I LOVE YOU” run as a time to speak and demonstrate all this …

Who prays before sleeping in peace lies and soon falls asleep. Dream the dreams of God, certainly they are better q yours. Do not kid yourself: faith is not found, that God will do what you want. Faith is believing that He will do what is best for you.

When you say things, I do not want to just listen,
I want you to feel and dream with me too!

Dream, can envision a future that makes our life more pleasant, so dream, but dream awake and strive to make these dreams come true-, otherwise, better keep dreaming just sleeping.

is utopian dream, fantasize and make sure everything will work out, you are the builder of your future, make fiction lasting reality, believe me, you can transform utopia indeed

Dream to travel. Travel for free.

see full list of good night quotes at : http://quoteslibrary.org/

Just dream up, let all what say, then just dream for a day to get there, the unexpected.

Dream

Being too realistic
is what do we imprisons
Taking us to be pessimistic
Making us hostages of fear
Allow yourself, risk is
Dreaming is WHAT makes us free
is WHAT motivates us,
Louder and louder, Dream
It shaper in nobles
is WHAT moves us!

Dream, fight, believe follow your thoughts and not what you feel and at the end you’ll be where you should be

Never look into the crisis; dream first with creativity, opening doors to new opportunities for creative work.

Fight, believe, dream and win!

Dream and have faith

Always dream big!
No matter the place you came, color or shape. Always be your best!

Do not try to be happy with someone who makes you happy. Dream of wonders, and when someone hold your hand and want to walk with you . Make them!

Dream on, but do not hold the illusion

Dream to wake up and can accomplish. It all starts with a dream; the dream is the basis of achievement.

Dream about what you want

“Smile, play, cry, kiss, die of love, feel, dream, cry and, above all, alive. The end is not always the end. Life is not always real. The past is not always passed. This not always was and now is not always now. Everything that goes around comes around. and if you go back is because it is made of love. ”

little dream or dream big,  the important thing is not getting off the jump. Not worth descends to the level of sadness and hopelessness. brave woman is one who swallows fear and face the challenges, without losing time with “if” and “maybe.” Go through life is the rule, and if so, the people parading pass